There are many different reasons for heel pain in adults, but in children the most common by far is a problem called Severs disease. Because this is damage to the growing area at the back of the heel bone, it would not happen in adults. The most common age of developing is about the early teens or a bit before. When we are born the heel bone develops from two locations, one being the major body of the heel bone and the other being the growth area at the back of the heel bone. These two areas of bone are divided by an area of cartilage. Severs disease occurs when there is too much force on that region of cartilage.
The leading causes are simply excessive activity done to rising amounts so that the bone isn't getting enough time to get accustomed to the loads which are put on the bone. Most typically the child is participating in lots of sports activity, usually on hard surfaces. Limited calf muscles are also frequently observed. The primary symptom is pain around the edges of the heel bone at the back of the heel and pain on activity. Increasing the amount of sporting activity also will make it more painful.
The essential approach to its treatment is a decrease in activity to ensure that strain on the growing region of bone is reduced. Commonly a cushioned heel lift is necessary to protect the area and reduce the pull from the Achilles tendon. Ice following activity to help with pain can be useful. If this is not helping, a further cut in the amount of weightbearing activity is necessary and in the most recalcitrant ones, a walking brace or cast is utilized to substantially decrease physical activity levels. If all this does not help, which it occasionally does, then it is just a matter of controlling it until the two areas of growing bone combine to form one and it will no longer be a problem.